Halve the time
for successful learning
Comparative study by Harvard etc: Testing and spacing
According to Harvard Magazine nov-dec 2009,
two important learning principles are the spacing and testing effects.
* Instead of a test at the end of a course, the material should be presented in a test format.
* Typically, these courses contain up to 40 questions, decisions and scenarios with feedback.
* Test format has according to Harvard shown the efficacy in more than 10 rigorous scientific studies
on medical students using randomized trials which
- increase knowledge by up to 50 percent
- and strengthen long-term retention for up to two years.
Research in many countries has proven the testing effect.
According to Roediger & Karpicke,
Tests and practice is more favorable for learning than re-reading.
Basic research on human learning and memory has shown
that testing information has powerful effects on learning and on
long-term memory. Repeated testing improves learning more than
repeated reading, which often provides only limited benefit beyond
what has already been learned from the first reading of the material. If you repeat, without reflecting and testing yourself,
the effect is significantly less. Just reading and underlining in a text gives an illusion of knowledge.
Test-based learning means, with repeated tests, to
practice and strengthen the ability for memory retrieval.
According to Roediger & Butler,
An effective and well studied cognitive operation that enhances retention is retrieval practice.
Often referred to as the "testing effect". Cognitive science explains "retrieval practice"
as a way to promote learning by using "tests".
Students reinforce their learning through intermittent questions, assessments and other techniques.
- A course should be based on tests and the student should be confronted
with questions and tasks and get feedback.
Spacing is necessary or else even the Testing effect is destroyed.
The spacing effect is a spread of learning over time so that
“When you present and repeat information over intervals of time
in small lumps as opposed to “binges”, you can increase the uptake of knowledge.”
In the cases above, it is about some months.
Building new memory cells requires switching between exercise and rest.
Meanwhile you reflect, think or do something else or sleep, your brain processes information
and builds new nerves and connections.
This means that the brain needs time enough to build an increased understanding.
Immediate visual feedback for Reflection
An important principle is that you get immediate feedback
after each single issue, question or decision. Fast and clear feedback is a
prerequisite of being able to correct thoughts and knowledge
and develop skills and intuitive judgments. Tests motivate thinking through
the learning which increases the testing effect through reflection.
Test-based learning is to repeatedly practice and get feedback
which strengthen the ability to remember.
Our memories of facts are strengthened every time we pick them up (Roediger and Butler).
Testing effect is the reinforcing effect that testing has on long-term
memory. If you repeat, without having reflected and tested yourself,
the effect becomes considerably less. Testing is more beneficial for learning
than just repeating a text (Roediger & Karpicke).
The reflection effect
Shorter study sessions spread over time give time for reflection and to consolidate knowledge.
Courses should also be based on testing and practice with feedback providing context
and on reflection by asking questions and giving answers.
According to researchers in PNAS,
see more in Questions about Active learning.
See the Context in active learning
In the common videos, educational and exercise books of today every exercise task is an isolated island.
You do not have, as in ProfitGames, the ability to see the result of your
exercise or calculation or how your result affects a larger economic context,
such as the company in total out of various aspects and key figures.
This makes it impossible for you. You need ProfitGames.
In business economy and finance with complex structures and patterns you need to see the context in images.
When you solve financial tasks, you need immediate response in financial pictures
to how your exercise or gaming company is totally affected after each certain decision.
The calc models and report pictures in ProfitGames illustrate and give a comprehensive view in color and shape.
That creates long term memory.
Enough screen size
In order to see the financial patterns and the context, the screen need to
be able to display several windows to accommodate at the same time different much of
- decisions and questions together with their results in
- report pictures, graphic and simulation and calculation tools
- videos and Facts-texts.
Studies have shown that the general access to digital tools
and the use of them differs from gender, socioeconomic background and
other demographic variables. It is therefore important that all students are given the same opportunities
to develop their skills. The courses require the use of a large number of digital tools as
calculations, simulations and reports.
Answering is encouraged
There are decisions to make and questions to answer.
* Together with them, normally a report or calculation is shown with its Facts-texts
containing the theory, where you search for answers.
* Attempting to answer gives points, also at a wrong answer, but lowers the average score.
* Giving up reduces more. It is better to find out facts and answer than giving up.
- One of the targets, Average Points, should be completed to get a diploma.
Knowledge is a condition of successful business activity.
- Cognitive science has shown the importance of not giving up in case of difficulties.
It is about building positive attitudes. Computer technology can come to help.
Audio and text
If text and audio are presented simultaneously the sight reacts first.
The eye wants to obtain an overview and some detailed knowledge.
It is an advantage if the sound comes in only when the eye had its day.
The audio files do not start automatically other than in feedback situations.
Communicate economy and sustainability
Economy e.g. in the form of key figures may need to be communicated
into the operations of a business to create the necessary changes.
Usually, the employees are not familiar with the financial concepts. On the other hand
they have a great detailed knowledge of their reality.
therefore necessary to create an understanding of how their
reality is associated with the aggregated financial concepts, even
in its wider context as a sustainable, economic, social and
environmental value creation and consideration that does not cause
waste of resources and misuse of assets and the environment.
It's the same at school. Even schoolstudents have some insights into the private economy.
In ProfitGames they build up an understanding of structures, starting with the private economy,
in which money can be sorted, namely balance sheet and income statement.
Demands are increasing to support everything from our environment to better private economy
through the importance of knowledge and thus schoolwork, research and development to create
innovative companies with environmentally friendly products for an economic way of life.
How long does a course take?
You should easily be able to double your level of competence per time spent.
To create long term memory the courses are based on an intercommunion between the features and the whole
structure, between the parts and the entirety in order to provide coherence.
You should as early as possible perceive the fundamental patterns and structures
of finance before further experiences and creative solutions. You see ongoing how the
details and the implications of your decisions are related to the greater context and the big pictures.
Key elements include awards as (Entrepreneur) Finance Diplomas MBA with the possibility to reach higher levels.
Under guides after login there are lesson plans for the teachers.
Examples of blended learning
- The teacher need to have gone through the chosen course or game to know
what to emphasize.
Tools with Facts
In courses and games there are questions to answer and decisions to make.
Together with them there are tools, as reports and calculations, with a link, Facts, to
an instructive text. You can search in Facts by means of the search function (Ctrl/cmd + F).
See more about the Contents of tools and their Facts.
There is also a business Dictionary explaining words and terms.
The shortcut to effective learning lies in shaping an early overall view.
The participants can put their own experience in a consistency.
All that happens is summed up and related to comprehensive pictures in reports and calculations.
Color and shape is an important theme
throughout to facilitate the understanding of the context.
Individual going through
Flipped Classroom is an educational model where
students make their own web-based reviews before the teacher's review and support
with the opportunity to focus on where the needs are greatest.
Collective going through
The teacher selects a course. The students follow
the teacher's computer in an overhead projector, smartboard
or similar on a large screen during a joint discussion.
It can also be about remote and distance
* Collectively the business games courses can be performed in the same way as the practice courses.
In the games the decisions are displayed more or less randomly within an office.
* Individually the students can play in groups, two or three together, in a communicative process.
Or drive the business with reflection on one's own. Different learning styles can be used.
Practice sheets and crayons
Feel free to have crayons available and click forward practice sheets. Most people experience drawing as fun and you learn easier and faster.
When a Business Game is undertaken by several groups or individuals, the teacher may from time to time decide that everyone saves
and draws up their graphical balance sheets to compare strategies and to see which offices each should choose next.
Two Swedish bankruptcy trustees issued a report in 1991
based on the experiences of the 1980s, which was one long boom.
(Robert Neufeld, Peter Smedman: "Full speed towards insolvency:
reading book for entrepreneurs and start-up candidates about
overconfidence..."). Despite the good times of the 1980s many businesses went bankrupt.
Major reasons were the lack of self-knowledge and of knowledge in
business finance and financial connections.
Avoid full speed towards insolvency
Conclusion: This was a strong driving force for ProfitGames, helping people avoid getting financial difficulties
and, at worst, bankruptcy. Knowledge is an investment in success when you understand
financial relationships and yourself in this context.
From different perspectives
Regard the figure as a round window
You can vary from which side, left or right, you look through the window. It takes some seconds to switch over the vision.
In a corresponding way you should try to see issues from many perspectives.
Fundamental is to confront views from
different angles and bring all essential facts into the estimation.
This level is finished regarding tools and reports with their teaching aids,
facts, for as an example
- Business Game Expert.
- Cash flow analysis II.
- Return and Investment II.
- Investment and capital requirements II.
- Profit control in Service industries.
- Profit control in Manufacturing.